This collection consists mainly of specimens collected during the prospection and exploration of mineral resources in various parts of the country. It also includes samples from other countries, with crystallographic forms of great beauty.
It was initiated with the field work of Amílcar de Jesús, Alfredo Bensaúde and Sousa Brandão. It is currently in exhibition and includes Portuguese and foreign minerals, among which should be mentioned the large crystals of Panasqueira Mine (Fundão) and the samples from Neves Corvo Mine.
Equally interesting are the Portuguese specimens of fossil fuels: coal and petroleum and radioactive minerals used to extract uranium.